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实验室消防安全设计规范

发布时间:2019-08-13 17:23来源:TMOON点击:

  

  

  实验室是进行教学、科研工作的重要场所,根据研究方向不同,会使用到易燃、易爆危险化学品、具有火灾危险性的仪器、设备以及工艺等,火灾致因多,火灾风险性高,如果管理不规范,极易导致火灾事故,造成人员伤害及财产损失,可以说,实验室消防安全是实验室安全管理工作的重中之重。


  实验室消防安全是一个系统工程,相互联系、相互影响,可以说是牵一发而动全身,贯穿于实验室设计、建设、装修、使用的全生命周期,TMOON结合实验室消防安全管理经验,分享几点实验室消防安全贴士供大家参考。


  1GAOXIAOSHIXIAOFANGANQUANZHONGDIANDANWEI,SHIYANSHISHIXIAOFANGANQUANZHONGDIANBUWEI

  《机关、团体、企业、事业单位消防安全管理规定》(公安部令第61条)第十三条将寄宿制学校、重要科研单位定义为消防安全重点单位,第十九条将容易发生火灾、一旦发生火灾可能严重危及人身和财产安全以及对消防安全有重大影响的部位确定为消防安全重点部位。实验室因使用易燃、易爆、易制爆等危险化学品以及烘箱、马弗炉、通风橱皇冠足彩、冰箱、气体钢瓶等有火灾危险性的仪器、设备,火灾风险高,属于消防安全重点部位。


  2SHIYANSHIHUOZAILEIXINGFENLEI

  根据《建筑设计防火规范》规定,按照燃烧对象的性质不同,火灾分为A类火灾、B类火灾、C类火灾、D类火灾、E类火灾以及F类火灾,其中,A类火灾是指固体物质火灾,通常是指在燃烧时能产生灼热余烬的有机物,如木材、纸张等;B类火灾是指液体或可熔化固体火灾,如乙醇、煤油、石油醚、沥青、石蜡等;C类火灾是指气体火灾,如天然气、乙炔、一氧化碳、氢气等;D类火灾是指金属火灾,如金属钾、金属钠等;E类火灾是指带电火灾,如正在运行的电脑、服务器、变压器及电子设备等;F类火灾是指烹饪器具内的烹饪物火灾,如动物油脂、植物油脂等。实验室发生火灾时,一定要根据火灾类型施放合适的灭火剂,方可扑灭火灾,否则,轻则灭火剂无效不能扑灭火灾,重则导致火灾进一步扩大乃至产生爆炸。

  



  3SHIYANLOUNEIDEJIGEHONGXIANSHUZI

  ZAIMANZUSHUSANYAOQIUDEQIANTI(MEI100RENZUIXIAOSHUSANJINGKUANDU,RU≥4CENGDEYI、ERNAIHUODENGJIDEJIANZHUQIBAIRENZUIXIAOSHUSANKUANDUWEI1m/BAIREN,QITAQINGKUANGKECHABIAOQUEDING)XIA,SHIYANLOUNEISHIYANSHIDESHUSANMENBUYINGSHAOYU2GE,ZAISHIYANSHIMANZUTEDINGDEYANKETIAOJIAN,RUSHIYANSHIMIANJI、WEIZHIYIJISHUSANMENKUANDUDENG,KEYIZHISHEZHI1GESHUSANMEN。

皇冠足彩  ZAIMANZUSHUSANYAOQIUDEQIANTIXIA,SHIYANSHISHUSANMENDEKUANDUBUYINGXIAOYU0.9m,SHIYANSHINEIDESHEBEI、YONGPINBUYINGZUDANGSHIYANSHISHUSANMEN,JIANSHAOFUHEYAOQIUDESHUSANMENDESHIJISHIYONGKUANDU;DAN、DUOCENGJIANZHUSHIYANSHIDESHUSANZOUDAOHESHUSANLOUTIDEJINGKUANDUBUYINGXIAOYU1.10m,TONGLI,BUYINGZAISHUSANZOUDAOHESHUSANLOUTIBAIFANGZAWU、SHEBEI、YONGPINDENG,JIANSHAOSHIJISHIYONGKUANDU;CIWAI,GAOCENGJIANZHUZHONGDESHIYANSHISHUSANLOUTIJINGKUANDUBUYINGXIAOYU1.20m(YILIAOJIANZHU1.30m),SHUSANZOUDAODEJINGKUANDUDANMIANBUFANGBUYINGXIAOYU1.30m(YILIAOJIANZHU1.40m)、SHUANGMIANBUFANGBUYINGXIAOYU1.40m(YILIAOJIANZHU1.50m),LOUTIJIANDESHOUCENGSHUSANMENJISHOUCENGSHUSANWAIMENDEJINGKUANDUBUYINGXIAOYU1.20m(YILIAOJIANZHU1.30m)。

  DAN、DUOCENGYI、ERNAIHUODENGJIDEJIAOXUEJIANZHUSHIYANSHINEIRENYIDIANZHIFANGJIANZHITONGSHUSANZOUDAODESHUSANMENDEZHIXIANJULIBUYINGDAYU22m,GAOCENGJIAOXUEJIANZHUSHIYANSHINEIRENYIDIANZHIFANGJIANZHITONGSHUSANZOUDAODESHUSANMENDEZHIXIANJULIBUYINGDAYU15m,RUGUOJIANZHUNEIQUANBUSHEZHIZIDONGPENSHUIMIEHUOXITONGSHI,GAIJULIKEYIZENGJIA25%。


  4ZIBAO、ZIPENDUISHIYANSHIDEYINGXIANG

  ZIBAOSHIHUOZAIZIDONGBAOJINGXITONGDEJIANCHENG,ZIPENSHIZIDONGPENSHUIMIEHUOXITONGDEJIANCHENG。ZIBAO、ZIPENXITONGDUISHIYANLOUJISHIYANSHIFANGHUOFENQUMIANJI(FANBEI)、SHUSANJULI(ZENGJIA25%)、MIEHUOQIPEIZHI(DIAOZHENGXISHU0.5)JUNYOUYINGXIANG,XUYAOGENJUSHIJIQINGKUANGJISUANQUEDING,YIDANTOURUSHIYONG,BUDESHANZIGENGGAI、GUANBI,FOUZE,KENENGHUIDAOZHIQITABUFUHEXIAOFANGYAOQIUDEWENTICHUXIAN,DAILAIXIAOFANGANQUANYINHUAN;RUGUOGENJUSHIJISHIYONGXUYAOYIDINGYAOGENGGAI、GUANBISHIYANLOUJISHIYANSHINEIDEZIBAO、ZIPENXITONG,XUYAOJINGGUOZHUANJIALUNZHENGTONGGUO,LUOSHIXIANGYINGCUOSHIHOUFANGKEZHIXING。


  5KERANQITIBAOJINGQI

  KERANQITIBAOJINGQISHIJIANCEKONGQIZHONGKERANQITINONGDUDEYIZHONGYUJINGSHEBEI,YIBANBAOJINGZHISHIKERANQITIBAOZHAXIAXIANDE25%,ZAISHIYANSHINEISHIYONGKERANQITIBAOJINGQIYIDINGYAOZHUYIYIXIAJIDIAN:SHOUXIAN,YIQISHEBEIBAIFANGBUYAOZUDANGKERANQITIBAOJINGQI,ERQIEBUYAOJIANGKONGDIAOFENGKOUHUOZHEPAIFENGSHEBEIDUIZHEKERANQITIBAOJINGQIDEFANGXIANG,YIMIANJIANGQITICHUISAN,BUNENGDADAOBAOJINGHEYUJINGDEZUOYONG;QICIJIUSHIYINGGENJUKERANQITIDEMIDUQUEDINGKERANQITIBAOJINGQIDEANZHUANGWEIZHI,BIKONGQIQINGDEKERANQITIXIELOUHOUXIANGSHANGPIAO,QIBAOJINGQIYINGANZHUANGZAISHIYANSHIDINGPENGHUOSHANGDUAN;ERYUKONGQIMIDUXIANGCHABUDAHUOBIKONGQIMIDUDADEKERANQITI(YUKONGQIDEXIANGDUIMIDU≥0.75),ZEHUITINGLIUZAIXIANGDUIWENDINGDEWEIZHIHUOXIANGXIAJIJU,SUOYIZAISHEZHIKERANQITIBAOJINGQISHI,YINGDANGANZHUANGZAISHIYANSHIDEZHONGBUHUOXIABU。ZAIANZHUANGKERANQITIBAOJINGQISHIYIDINGYAOGENJUQITIDEMIDU、XINGZHIANZHUANG,BIRU,RUOJIANGLIUHUAQING(XIANGDUIMIDU1.19)QITIBAOJINGQIANZHUANGZAISHIYANSHIDINGBU,ZEBAOJINGQIJIANCECHULIUHUAQINGQITISHI,GAISHIYANSHIYIJINGCHONGMANLELIUHUAQINGQITI,WANQUANBUNENGDADAOYUJINGBAOJINGDEZUOYONG。


  6SHIYANSHIMIEHUOJIDEXUANYONG

  根据燃烧物SDS(Safety Data Sheet,化学品安全技术说明书)上标明可使用的灭火剂确定使用灭火器的型号,如乙醇的SDS上标明适用灭火剂为干粉、泡沫、二氧化碳,则说明可以使用干粉灭火器、泡沫灭火器以及二氧化碳灭火器扑灭乙醇火灾;实验室配置皇冠足彩灭火器时,应根据实验室内存放的化学品适用的灭火剂进行搭配,应能够覆盖该实验室内所有类型的火灾,且一旦发生火灾,实验会内人员必须准确告知起火物质,以便对症下药,正确、有效的处置。

皇冠足彩  ZHUYI:SHIYANSHINEIBUSHISUOYOUHUOZAIDOUNENGGOUSHIYONGMIEHUOQIJINXINGPUJIUDE,BIRUDLEIHUOZAI,JIJINSHUHUOZAI,RUJINSHUNAHUOZAI,CILEIHUOZAIBIXUSHIYONGZHUANYONGDEMIEHUOQI,RU7150MIEHUOJI,JIPIANLINSUANSANJIAZHIYIJIGANZAODESHATU。SHIYANSHINEIYIBANSHIYONGGANZAODESHATUPUMIEDLEIHUOZAI。


皇冠足彩  7MIEHUOQIDEZHENGQUEFANGZHIWEIZHI

  灭火器的放置位置也是很有讲究的,现在有很多高校实验室的师生安全意识很强,为自己的实验室增配了灭火器,但是有很多师生将灭火器放置在试剂柜顶,或者“藏”在设备、柜子后不易“察觉”的位置,这些都是不规范的。

  MIEHUOQIDEGUIFANFANGZHIYAODADAOWEIZHIMINGXIAN、BIANYUQUYONG、BUYINGXIANGSHUSANDEYAOQIU。WEIZHIMINGXIANSHIZHIMIEHUOQIYINGFANGZHIZAIMEIYOUSHIXIANZHANGAIDEDIDIAN,RUGUOFANGZHIZAIYOUSHIXIANZHANGAIDEDIDIAN,YINGSHEZHINENGGOUZHISHIQIWEIZHIDEFAGUANGBIAOZHI;BIANYUQUYONGSHIZHIMIEHUOQIDEBAIFANGYINGDANGWENGU,MINGPAICHAOWAI,QIEBUYITAIGAO,CANKAOMIEHUOQIZAIGUAGOU、TUOJIASHANGQIDINGBUJULIDIMIANGAODUBUYINGDAYU1.5mDEYAOQIU,MIEHUOQIDEBAIFANGYINGMANZUQIDINGBUJULIDIMIANGAODUBUDAYU1.5m,MIEHUOQIFANGZHITAIGAO,ZAIXUYAOSHIBUNENGLIJIQUYONG,DANWUBAOGUIDEPUMIECHUQIHUOZAIDEHUANGJINSHIJIAN,CIWAI,SHENGAOBIJIAOAIDERENKENENGGOUBUDAOMIEHUOQI,DAOZHIWUFASHIYONG。


皇冠足彩  8MIEHUOQIDEZUIDABAOHUJULI

  MIEHUOQISHIFAXIANHUOQINGHOUSHISHENGNENGGOULIJINAQUBINGSHIYONGDEMIEHUOGONGJU,NEIME,SHIYANSHIJISHIYANLOUXUYAOPEIBEIDUOSHAOJUHEZHONGGUIGEDEMIEHUOQIFANGNENGDADAOXIAOFANGYAOQIUNI?ZAI《JIANZHUMIEHUOQIPEIZHISHEJIGUIFAN》LIMIANDOUYOUXIANGXIDESHUOMING,ZHEILIBIZHEJIANDANJIESHAOYIXIASHIYANSHIPEIZHIMIEHUOQIDEBAOHUBANJINGJIZUIDABAOHUJULI。MIEHUOQIDEPEIZHICHANGSUOGENJUHUOZAIZHONGLEIFENWEIALEI(GUTI)HUOZAICHANGSUOYIJIB(YETI)、C(QITI)LEIHUOZAICHANGSUO,GENJUWEIXIANDENGJIFENWEIQINGWEIXIANJI、ZHONGWEIXIANJIYIJIYANZHONGWEIXIANJI,QIZHONG,WEISHEJIZHONGKONGDIAO、DIANZIJISUANJI、FUYINJIDENGSHEBEIDEPUTONGBANGONGSHISHUYUQINGWEIXIANJI;YIBANDESHIYANSHI、JIAOSHIYIJIJIAOYANSHISHUYUZHONGWEIXIANJI;SHEBEIGUIZHONGHUOKERANWUDUODESHIYANSHISHUYUYANZHONGWEIXIANJI。DUIYUALEIHUOZAICHANGSUO,SHOUTISHIMIEHUOQIDEZUIDABAOHUJULIYICIWEI15m(YANZHONGWEIXIANJI)、20m(ZHONGWEIXIANJI)YIJI25m(QINGWEIXIANJI);DUIYUB、CLEIHUOZAICHANGSUO,SHOUTISHIMIEHUOQIDEZUIDABAOHUJULIYICIWEI9m(YANZHONGWEIXIANJI)、12m(ZHONGWEIXIANJI)YIJI15m(QINGWEIXIANJI)。ZHEILIDEZUIDABAOHUJULISHIYIMIEHUOQISHEZHIDIANWEIYUANXIN,YISHOUTISHIMIEHUOQIDEZUIDABAOHUJULIWEIBANJINGSUOFUGAIDEMIANJI,YINGBAOZHENGZUIBULIDIANZHISHAOZAI1JUMIEHUOQIDEBAOHUFANWEINEI。


  9MIEHUOQIDESHIYONG

  SHIYONGSHOUTISHIMIEHUOQIYOULIUZIJUE,JI“DING、KAN、TI、BA、MIAO、SAO”,“DING”SHIZHIGENJUHUOZAIDEZHONGLEI,RANSHAOWUSDSSHANGBIAOMINGKESHIYONGDEMIEHUOJIQUEDINGSHIYONGMIEHUOQIDEXINGHAO,RUGUTIWUZHIHUOZAIZEXUYAOSHIYONGABCGANFENMIEHUOQIERBUNENGSHIYONGBCGANFENMIEHUOQI;“KAN”SHIZHIZAISHIYONGQIANXUGUANCHAGAIJUMIEHUOQIDEYALISHIFOUZAILVSEFANWEINEI,RUOMIEHUOQIYALIGUODI,HUIDAOZHIMIEHUOJIPENFANGYALIBUZU,BUNENGYOUXIAOMIEHUO;“TI”SHIZHIYONGYIZHISHOU,YIBANSHIGUANYONGSHOUDECHUMUZHIWAIDEQIYUSIZHITONGGUOTIBATIQIMIEHUOQI;“BA”SHIZHIYONGLINGYIZHISHOUJIANGMIEHUOQIDEBAOXIANXIAOBADIAO,ZHEIGESHIHOUYAOZHUYITIQIMIEHUOQIDESHOUBUYAOFALIYAXIAYABA,BIMIANTIBAHEYABAJIANGBAOXIANXIAOYAOZHUERBUNENGSHUNLIBACHU;“MIAO”SHIZHIZAILIRANSHAO3-5MIJULIDESHANGFENGCE,JIANGPENGUANDUIZHUNHUOYANGENBU;“SAO”SHIZHIJIANGPENGUANDUIZHUNYIHOU,TIMIEHUOQIDESHOUYONGLIYAXIAYABA,JIANGMIEHUOJIPENCHUJINXINGMIEHUO。


  10JIESHUYU

  YISHANGSHITMOONFENXIANGDEJIUDIANXINDEGONGDAJIACANKAO。CIWAI,XUYAOSHISHENGTEBIEZHUYIDESHI,YINGFENQINGSHIYANLOUNEIFANGHUOMENSHICHANGKAISHIFANGHUOMENHAISHICHANGBISHIFANGHUOMEN,QUEBAOSHIYANLOUNEIDECHANGBISHIFANGHUOMENZAIPINGSHICHUYUCHANGBIDEZHUANGTAI,YIDADAOHUOZAISHIZUGEYANWUJIHUOSHIMANYANDEZUOYONG;SHIYANLOU、SHIYANSHIZAIGAIZAO、ZHUANGXIUSHIYINGJINLIANGSHIYONGBURANXINGCAILIAOQIEYINGNENGMANZUHUOZAIFANGYAN、PAIYANYAOQIU。


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